January 15, 2024

What is trauma? Signs, Symptoms, and Recovery Process

Trauma, unfortunately, is not a foreign concept to most of us. It can come in many forms – be it physical injury, emotional distress, or a combination of both. A single event, such as a car accident or natural disaster, can cause trauma. It can also result from ongoing experiences, such as abuse or neglect. Regardless of the cause, trauma significantly affects an individual’s well-being and functioning. In this blog post, we will explore what trauma is, how trauma affects us, and how to recover from our traumatic wounds.

Defining Trauma

Trauma is often defined as an emotional response to a shocking or disturbing experience that surpasses one’s ability to cope. It can result from a single event or a series of events, and its effects can linger for years if left untreated. Traumatic experiences are not limited to natural disasters or accidents but can also include personal traumas such as abuse, neglect, or witnessing violence.

When Does Trauma Turn Into PTSD?

Trauma becomes Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) when the mental and emotional distress experienced after a traumatic event continues over a long period, typically more than a month, and significantly hampers an individual’s ability to function in daily life. While it’s normal to have upsetting memories or have trouble sleeping after a traumatic event, it’s when these symptoms persist, intensify, or start to affect one’s ability to perform everyday activities that it may be indicative of PTSD.


It’s important to note that PTSD does not always develop immediately following the traumatic event. Delayed-onset PTSD, where symptoms start to appear several months or even years after the traumatic experience, is also quite common. The sooner the symptoms are recognized and addressed, the better the chances of managing and overcoming them.

Common signs and symptoms of trauma.

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of trauma is crucial in understanding and supporting those who may be experiencing it. Some of the most common signs can include anxiety, depression, and changes in mood, behavior, or personality. Physical symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disturbances, and headaches may also occur. 

Additionally, individuals who have experienced trauma may develop a heightened sensitivity to their environment or triggers that remind them of the traumatic event. It is important to remember that these reactions are normal responses to abnormal events, and healing is possible with the proper support and care. Here are symptoms associated with traumatic experience:

  • Flashbacks or intrusive memories
  • Avoidance of reminders or triggers
  • Negative changes in thoughts or mood 
  • Feeling emotionally numb or disconnected 
  • Difficulty sleeping or concentrating 
  •  Increased anxiety or hypervigilance 
  •  Changes in appetite or weight 
  • Physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue
  •  Substance abuse or self-harming behaviors

What are the three types of trauma?

Trauma can take a toll on anyone, regardless of background, age, or circumstances. The three types of trauma are acute, chronic, and complex. Let’s explore each of them. 

  1. Acute trauma happens when a person experiences a single, extremely distressing event, such as a natural disaster, car accident, or physical assault. 
  2. Chronic trauma is prolonged and repetitive, such as ongoing abuse, neglect, or exposure to violence. 
  3. Complex trauma is multiple instances of trauma, often beginning in childhood, that can manifest in a variety of symptoms and challenges throughout adulthood. 

While these three types represent various forms of trauma, it’s crucial to remember that trauma symptoms are not ‘one size fits all.’ The way each individual experiences trauma is uniquely influenced by a range of factors, including their personality, resilience, support system, and the nature of the traumatic event itself. 

For instance, one person may experience acute trauma as immediate emotional distress, while another may display delayed reactions. Similarly, someone with chronic trauma could develop severe anxiety and depression over time, while another person might show physical symptoms without recognizing them as signs of trauma. This unique response to trauma emphasizes the importance of personalized care and treatment in trauma recovery.

What are the four core trauma responses?

There are four core trauma responses that people might experience: fight, flight, freeze, and fawn. These are the body and brain’s automatic survival instincts, and they all serve a purpose in keeping us safe. 

  1. Fight:  This response occurs when individuals feel the need to defend themselves against a perceived threat. It can manifest in aggression, anger, or resistance. For example, a survivor of childhood abuse might respond with hostility or defiance when confronted with a triggering situation.
  2. Flight: This response is characterized by the need to escape or avoid a perceived danger. It can manifest in fleeing from the traumatic event or avoiding anything that may remind the individual of it. For example, someone who has experienced a car accident may avoid driving altogether.
  3. Freeze: This response involves shutting down emotionally and physically, often as a way to protect oneself from further harm. It can manifest in feeling numb, dissociating, or experiencing memory gaps. For example, a person who has experienced sexual assault may feel disconnected from their body during intimate moments.
  4. Fawn: This response is less commonly known but involves people pleasing and seeking validation as a means of survival. It can manifest in codependent behaviors, fear of rejection, and difficulty saying no. For example, a person who has experienced emotional abuse may develop people-pleasing tendencies to avoid triggering the abuser.

Usually, it is difficult to identify any of these responses we deploy when triggered. This is why the help of a psychotherapist is essential to analyzing and understanding your behavior when triggered. When we understand and validate our trauma responses, it can help us begin the healing process. We are no longer reacting to the situations but responding with full awareness. 

How do I know I have trauma?

While some people might experience recognizable symptoms such as flashbacks, panic attacks, and nightmares, others might not be aware of their trauma at all. It is normal to feel confused and not know how to identify if you have been traumatized. However, some common signs indicate you might be experiencing trauma, including feeling numb, disconnected, emotionally dysregulated, or having difficulty sleeping. 

Trauma not only affects us emotionally and physically, but it also impacts our behaviors, often as a survival mechanism to avoid further distress. One such behavioral form of trauma is the avoidance of certain people, places, or things that may trigger a flashback or reminder of the traumatic incident. This avoidance behavior is a common symptom of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), where the individual actively steers clear of any elements that may remind them of their traumatic experience. Although this avoidance can provide temporary relief, it may lead to disruptions in daily life, such as social isolation, relationship difficulties, or a significant loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities. 

Coping strategies for managing trauma triggers.

Some coping strategies that may be helpful include mindfulness techniques, grounding techniques, identifying and challenging negative thoughts, physical movement, and seeking support from a trauma therapist. 


It is also crucial to create a safety plan for when triggers occur, which may involve removing oneself from the triggering situation, practicing self-care, or contacting a trusted friend. Coping with trauma triggers can be challenging and may require patience and practice, but with time and support, it is possible to develop effective coping strategies that work for you.

What are some common treatments for trauma?

Therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), have been shown to be effective. Medications may also be prescribed to alleviate symptoms of depression or anxiety. Significantly, self-care practices like exercise, meditation, and spending time with loved ones can also aid in the healing process. 

A good place to start your journey toward healing would be to find a therapist who is familiar with trauma and PTSD. It is also important to note that while most therapists work with trauma, some specialize in trauma therapy and can have a better outcome.   

How to support a loved one suffering from trauma

When someone we care about is going through a traumatic experience, it can be challenging to know how to help them. It’s important to validate their feelings and let them know their emotions are understandable and valid. Listening without judgment and offering support can have a significant impact. 


Encourage your loved one to seek professional help if they feel comfortable and let them know that it’s okay to take time to heal. Being a supportive and compassionate presence can make all the difference in their recovery journey. Remember that everyone experiences trauma differently and at their own pace, so be patient and understanding with your loved one.

Whether it’s acute, chronic, or complex trauma, all forms have the potential to impact our lives and relationships deeply. However, there is hope for healing and recovery. As we begin to understand our core trauma responses and identify healthy coping strategies, we can take steps toward finding balance and peace within ourselves. Seeking therapy or other professional support may also benefit this healing journey. It’s important to remember that self-care is essential during this process, as well as being supportive of our loved ones who may also be struggling with trauma.  

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